Тема (топик) на английском языке "Geographical position of the USA"

The United states of America is the fourth largest country in the world in both area and population. The total area of the USA is 3.6 million square miles which is equal to about 9.6 million square kilometres. The population of the USA is about 250 million people. The United States covers the entire midsection of North America, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the East to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It is also bordered by Canada And Mexico. It also includes Alaska, in the northwest corner of North America; and Hawaii, far out in the Pacific. The country, excluding Alaska and Hawaii, has three major mountain ranges which traverse it from north to south. Looking at the eastern United States we find the Appalachian Mountains. As geologically old mountains, the Appalachians generally are no higher than about 3500 feet. The Appalachian Mountains extend from the northern trip of Maine southwestward to Alabama. This region has many mountain ranges, such as the White Mountains and the Green Mountains of northern New England. Travelling west, the next great range mountains is the Rockies. The Rockies are geologically younger than the Appalachians and therefore they are higher and more rugged. Finally, near the west coast, you will see both the sierras and the Cascades. The Sierras and the Cascades make up the western coastal range. It is in the Sierras that the highest peak in the US is located. This is Mount Whitney with an elevation of some 14500 feet. As I have known for many years it was thought that Mount Shasta was the highest mountain. But in 1864 the Whitney Geological Survey discovered Mount Whitney to be higher than Shasta. And as you have already guessed probably it was named in honor of Josiah Dwight Whitney, the state geologist and leader of the Geological Survey. 
Now, let’s discuss the geography of the land areas that these great mountain ranges divide. We begin with the western coastal range and move toward the east. This huge area basically consists of plateaus and plains. The area between the Coastal Range and the Rockies is most often called the Intermontane Plateau and makes up 1/3 of the area of the country. The area is generally higher and drier than the areas that lie to the east. Further to the east we enter the vast interior lowland. The interior lowland comprises one half of the area of the US. Geographically, this lowland contains three distinct regions. Starting at the Rockies and moving eastward is the great plains, the highest and the driest of the three regions. East of the Great Plains and continuing to the Appalachian Mountains is the Central Lowland. The third region is the Coastal Plain which extends from Texas in the south-west through the Florida peninsula and all the way to New York in the north-east.
The US is a land of rivers and lakes. Mississippi River is the major river the United States (2,339 miles) (3,765 km). It flows from northwestern Minnesota south to the Gulf of Mexico, just below the city of New Orleans. It is a significant transportation artery and when combined with its major tributaries (the Missouri and Ohio rivers) it becomes the third largest river system in the world.
Missouri River
It begins in southern Montana in the Rocky Mountains, first flowing north then generally southeast across the heart of the United States, ending at the Mississippi River, just to the north of St. Louis, Missouri. It is the longest river in the United States (2,500 miles) (4,023 km).
Ohio River
Beginning at the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers nesr Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, it runs southwest, ending at the Mississippi River on the Illinois and Missouri borders. It is (980 miles) (1,557 km) in length.

The Great Lakes region of the United States is located in the east central part of North America and constitutes a large section of the border with Canada. The five Great Lakes - Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, and Superior - are the world’s largest group of freshwater lakes. The Great Lakes region is characterised by large industrial cities, great expanses of rural farm land, and immense areas of environmentally protected natural beauty. The major cities in the region include Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, and Minneapolis. The Great Lakes serve as the boundary between the United States and Canada. The Great Lakes region is the home for large research universities with student populations of more than thirty thousand students that offer undergraduate and graduate degree programs in every imaginable area of study.

In the drier west only three major river system reach the Pacific Ocean. These are the Colorado, the Colombia and the San Joaquin-Sacramento rivers.
Colorado River
Beginning in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado, it moves southwest ending in the Gulf of California. It is (1,450 miles) (2,333 km) in length, and has formed numerous canyons along its winding path. The most famous of these is the Grand Canyon in northern Arizona.
Columbia River
This wide, fast-flowing river begins in the Canadian Rockies of southeast British Columbia, Canada, flowing south through the State of Washington, then forming the natural border between Washington and Oregon. It ends in the Pacific Ocean and it is (1,152 miles) (1,857 km) in length.
Sacramento & San Joaquin Rivers
The Sacramento (380 miles) (610 km) in length, begins in the Klamath Mountains of northern California, flowing southwest, then south to join the San Joaquin River, before entering San Francisco Bay. The San Joaquin comes out of the Sierra Nevada near Yosemite National Park. It flows north to meet the Sacramento River, east of San Francisco. It's namesake valley is one of the most fertile agricultural regions in the USA. (350 miles) (563 km) in length.

The climate in USA varies across different parts of the country. Generally, the western and southern parts of US have warmer weather as compared to the eastern and northern parts. The eastern/northern parts of US experience harsh winters with heavy snowfall but the summers are pleasant. The western/southern part has extremely hot summers and comparatively tolerable winters.
USA can be divided into six climate regions, excluding Alaska, Hawaii and outlying territories. The climate varies considerably between different regions.
• Northwest Pacific
• Mid/South Pacific
• Midwest
• Northeast
• Southeast
• Southwest
Northwest Pacific:
(Includes states like Oregon and Washington to the crest of the Cascade Mountains)
This is the perhaps the wettest part of the country. There are scattered rain showers all year round. Temperatures are mild averaging around 40 degree F. (32.2 degree C). The summer months are pleasantly warmer but never too hot. You can see fogs along the coast during the warmer weather but the fog is less dense during mid-day.
Warm clothes: You will need extra warm clothes for winters like leather jackets, thermal jackets, warm inners, leather gloves etc.
Mid/South Pacific Rockies:
(Includes states like California, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, Utah and Nevada)
These states have generally dry and delightful summers.
California has excellent weather all the year round, with the northern part of the state somewhat cooler (quiet chilly in the winter but seldom freezing). There are very few places in California that experience snow, and the state is known for its nice weather. Mostly all the cities have tolerable winters.
The winter months in the other states like Montana, Idaho and Wyoming can be very cold, with temperatures dropping well below 0 degree F. Colorado, Utah and Nevada are known for their excellent skiing.
Warm clothes: For California you will need warm clothes for winters. For the rest of the Mid-South Pacific region you will need warmer apparel.
Midwest
(Includes states like Dakotas, Kansas, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, and Indiana)
This region is moderately dry. Precipitation occurs mainly in late spring and early summer. Summers are pleasant but winter time can be harsh, with lots of snow and heavy chilly winds. Extremes within the Midwest can drop down to -50 degree F.
Warm clothes: You will need extra warm clothes for winters like leather jackets, thermal jackets, warm inners, leather gloves etc.
Northeast
(Includes states like Ohio, Pennsylvania, Washington DC, Maryland).
This entire area is moderately rainy. In winter, the region experiences heavy snow and freezing rain. Summers are usually pleasant, sunny and warm. The fall is especially beautiful in wooded areas.
Warm clothes: You will need extra warm clothes for leather jackets, thermal jackets, warm inners, leather gloves etc.
Southeast
(Includes states like portions of Arkansas and Louisiana, Kentucky, West Virginia, Virginia)
Like the Northeast, this entire area experiences moderate rains fairly evenly throughout the year. The Spring, Summer and Fall seasons are all very pleasant. Some snow and freezing rain falls in winter but for the most part, the winters are quite mild and short lived.
Southern Florida, like California, usually has excellent weather all the year round.
Warm clothes: You will need moderate warm clothes for winters, but may need the extra warm ones for the cold weather that lasts for a very short duration of time.
Southwest
(Includes states like Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma and western portions of Arkansas and Louisiana)
This is the hottest and high rainfall region of the US. You must be prepared to face heavy rains accompanied with thunder storms, dangerous lightening and occasional tornadoes. The winters are generally short but some freezing rains do occur. The spring and fall seasons are quite long and temperatures are generally excellent. The summers are very hot with temperatures approaching and exceeding 100 degree F on many days.
Warm clothes: You will need moderate warm clothes for winters. Raincoats are a must.