Тема (топик) на английском языке "Man and Music"
The importance of music in our lives can not be defined with words. It is the air we breathe and the thoughts we think. It is the melodies that beat to the tune of our hearts. It is the universal language that we can all understand. Music can evoke our memories. It can remind us of the happy times. It reflects our moods and emotions. Music appeals to our hearts and transforms our feelings. It conquers our souls and enriches our minds. Besides, listening to music is the perfect way to spend free time and not to feel bored. You can hardly find a person who doesn't like or need music and who never sings or dances. Music is beauty in sounds; it is our magic source of inspiration.
I’d like to draw your attention that music isknown to have an effect on our health. It is proved that Bach and Bethoven’s music can help people totreat people. Have you ever heard about the "Mozart Effect"? It is a set of research results that indicate that listening to Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's music can change your molecular structure and make you smarter. It is rather difficult to believe in it. But it is proved by scientists.
Dictionaries and encyclopedias define music as "an artistic form of auditory communication incorporating instrumental or vocal tones in a structured and continuous manner." It is also defined as "any pleasing and harmonious sound" and "the sounds produced by singers or musical instruments." (Source: wordnet.princeton.edu)
Music is one of the oldest arts. There are many theories regarding when and where music originated. Historiographers point out that there are six periods of music and each period has a particular style of music.
Medieval/Middle Ages 0-1400 A.D.
During this time, there were several music styles.
So, Plainchant, also called plainsong, is a form of medieval church music that involves chanting. Plainchant doesn't use any instrumental accompaniment, instead, it uses words that are sung. It was the only type of music allowed in Christian churches early on. It was around the year 600 when Pope Gregory the Great (also known as Pope Gregory wanted to compile all the different types of chants into one collection. This compilation will later be known as Gregorian Chant. Today Gregorian chants are still being sung in Roman Catholic churches.
The next style of music is Polyphony. In its early form, polyphony was based on plainchant. It began when singers started improvising with parallel melodies. As singers continued experimenting with melodies, polyphony became more complex. Polyphony was both sacred and secular.
The works represented the early forms of secular music were the works of Troubadours who wrote courtly love poems and set it to music. They performed their songs in European courts and throughout the country. Eventually their popularity reached and flourished in Germany during the 12th and 13th centuries where they became known as minnesingers. The instruments which were used in this period were the lute, shawm, trumpet and harp.
The most important composers of that time was Guillaume de Mauchaut, John Dunstable, Francesco Landini.
The next music period is Renaissance. 1400-1600 A.D. It is interesting that the beginning of the Renaissance in music is not as clearly marked as the beginning of the Renaissance in the other arts, and unlike in the other arts, it did not begin in Italy, but in northern Europe, specifically in the area currently comprising central and northern France, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Renaissance means "rebirth" and in music this period brought about many changes in the way music was created and perceived. By this time the influence of the Church on the arts grew weak, composers and their patrons were ready for new artistic ideas. The composers of the Renaissance concerned themselves with three different areas of music:
• Sacred music: Composers continued to work with the older forms such as the motet and Mass. It is in this music that we find the clearest international style.
• Secular music: Composers created new forms that reflected national trends, such as the Italian madrigal and the French chanson.
• Instrumental music: The rise of music printing encouraged the spread of instrumental music for amateurs, and more specific types emerged.
In this period music for keyboard instruments such as the clavichord, harpsichord and organ was written. The lute was widely used at that time, both to accompany singing and for instrumental music. At first only instruments of the same family were played together, but eventually mixed instruments were used.
The most famous composers were Claudio Monteverdi Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Josquin Desprez
The Baroque period 1600-1750 A.D. was a time when composers experimented with form, styles and instruments. This period saw the development of opera and instrumental music.
In this time the opera appeared. At first the opera was only for the upper class or aristocrats but soon even the general public patronized it. Venice became the center of musical activity. In 1637, a public opera house was built there.
During the Baroque period, composers experimented with musical contrasts that differed greatly from the music of the Renaissance. They used what is known as a melodic soprano line supported by a bass line. Music became homophonic, meaning it was based on one melody with harmonic support coming from a keyboard player. Tonality was divided into major and minor. Ancient myths were a favorite theme of Baroque opera composers. Instruments used were brass, strings, especially violins (Amati and Stradivari), harpsichord, organ and cello.
Aside from the opera, composers also wrote numerous sonatas, concerto grosso and choral works. It is important to point out that composers at the time were employed by the Church or the aristocrats and as such were expected to produce compositions in large volumes, at times in a moments notice.
In Germany, organ music using the toccata form was popular. From the toccata emerged what is known as prelude and fugue. Other music forms of the Baroque period are the chorale prelude, Mass and oratorio.
Johann Sebastian Bach Antonio Vivaldi George Frideric Handel . Arcangelo Corelli
The music of the Classical period, which spans from 1750 to 1820, is characterized by simpler melodies and forms such as the sonatas. By the early 1700s, French and Italian composers used the "style gallant" or gallant style; a simple and more direct style of music. During this time, the aristocrats weren't the only ones who appreciated music, but those in the middle class as well. So composers wanted to create music that was less complicated; easy to understand.
The type of opera audiences preferred during this period was the comic opera. Also known as light opera. Other forms of this opera are opera buffa and operetta. In this type of opera, the dialogue is often spoken and not sung.
Musical instruments of the orchestra included a string section and pairs of bassoons, flutes, horns and oboes. The harpsichord was eliminated and was replaced by the pianoforte.
Franz Josef Haydn (1732-1809)
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart(1756-1791) Ludwig van Beethoven Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin
Historiographers define the Romantic Music period to be between 1800 to 1900. It is characterized by using music to tell a story or express an idea, and the use of various instruments including wind instruments. Melodies are fuller and more dramatic.
In this period the following music styles are devided:
• Program music - An instrumental music which relays ideas or narrates a story. Berlioz' Fantastic Symphony is an example of this.
• Character pieces - A short piece for the piano that depicts a single emotion, often in ABA form.
The piano was still the main instrument during the Early Romantic period. The piano underwent many changes and composers brought the piano to new heights of creative expression.
During the 19th century, Germany was also a center of musical activity. By the mid-19th century however, music themes shifted to folklore and folk music became a style that influenced composers. This nationalist theme can be felt in the music of Russia, eastern Europe and Scandinavian countries.
In the 19th century the term Mighty Handful or"the mighty five," became known. It was used to distinguish the 5 Russian nationalist composers of the 19th century. They include Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Mussogrsky and Rimsky-Korsakov.
Beside of this composers the following composers were famous^
• Franz Schubert - Wrote about 600 lieders (German songs). One of his most famous pieces is titled Unfinished named so because it only has 2 movements.
• Franz Liszt - His Fantastic Symphony was inspired by one of Berlioz' works. Developed the symphonic poem; making use of chromatic devices.
• Robert Schumann - Also wrote character pieces; some of his works were performed by Clara, his wife.
• Giuseppe Verdi - Wrote many operas with patriotic themes. Two of his most famous works are Otello and Falstaff.
• Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky - He wrote concertos, symphonic poems and symphonies. Known for his expressive music.
• Edvard Grieg - Norwegian composer who drew upon the national folklore of his beloved country as basis for his music.
The 20-th century is by all means considered to be the most influential period of time in the development of music. In the 20-th century there were more practising musicians than in all previous centuries taken together. In the 20-th century there was no mainstream but various styles in music. It is not an easy task to describe these music styles. They reflect the world that was constantly changing. Desires and fears of the people of the 20-th century found their outlet in music. The 20-th century opened a new era in the history of mankind, and the new epoch was to be described in new musical forms. The rules were left in the past. In the 20-th century everybody could choose the music that he would enjoy.
In the 1920s in New Orleans beautiful music filled the streets and cafes. The black and poor singers sang about their hard lives. Their music - jazz, ragtime and blues - soon travelled to Europe. It was the time when the black music entered the whites' culture changing the lifestyle of the people all over the world. Ever since the 1930s music was not just a way to relax. From that time on music began to reflect and determine the people's way of life.
Ragtime (alternately spelled rag-time) is an original musical genre which enjoyed its peak popularity between 1897 and 1918. Its main characteristic trait is its syncopated, or "ragged," rhythm. It began as dance music in the red-light districts of American cities such as St. Louis and New Orleans years before being published as popular sheet music for piano. By far the most famous ragtime composer was Scott Joplin. Joseph Lamb and James Scott are, together with Joplin, acknowledged as the three most sophisticated ragtime composers.
Jazz music is particularly notable for its improvisation, harmonic progressions anad syncopated rythms. It has been called[weasel words] the first original art form to develop in the United States of America and partakes of both popular and classical musics. Louis Armstrong, Miles Davis, and Billie Holiday are examples of some of the most celebrated jazz musicians of America’s past.
Blues is the name given to both a musical form and a music genre that originated in African-American communities. The term "the blues" refers to the "blue devils", meaning melancholy and sadness. The most famous representatives of blues are Robert Johnson John Lee Hooker B.B. King and women Gertrude Rainey Bessie Smith Victoria Spivey who are considered to be blues queens.
In the 1940s and 1950s new styles of music emerged. In the 1950s Elvis Presley became the king of rock 'n' roll in the United States of America. The new music travelled to Europe soon. It was especially popular among the teenagers.
In the 1960s in Great Britain, in Liverpool a new band was created. It was soon to be known world-wide as the "Beatles". They were writing simple songs and performing them so brilliantly that they gave a new impulse for the development of the musical community. Other members of the famous group were George Harrison and Ringo Starr. Such songs as "Yesterday", "Let It Be", "Love Me Do", and "Yellow Submarine" made them the most popular band not only in England, but throughout the world as well.
From the British Isles their music quickly travelled to Europe, America and other continents. Early in 1964 what soon came to be called "Beatlemania" struck the United States. For the first time British pop music was important abroad. Such U.S. performers as Chuck Berry and Elvis Presley admired the music of the "Beatles".